How to Prevent Low Platelet Count. A very low platelet count is also called thrombocytopenia. Platelets are tiny, colorless plate-shaped cells that help the blood. If you experience shortness of breath or struggle to find strength for completing your daily work activities, your doctor may ask you to undergo blood. February Issue. Nutrition and COPD - Dietary Considerations for Better Breathing By Ilaria St. Florian, MS, RD Today’s Dietitian Vol. 11 No. 2 P.
Low Sperm CountThis type occurs when your medication keeps your bone marrow from producing enough platelets. These drugs often are called "anticancer" drugs. It is not intended to be and should not be interpreted as medical advice or a diagnosis of any health or fitness problem, condition or disease; or a recommendation for a specific test, doctor, care provider, procedure, treatment plan, product, or course of action. Also someone mentioned that the Depo shot usually causes weight loss, you are absolutely wrong.. In other words it curbs your appatite. Eat foods containing folate.
HemoglobinDecreased platelet production Increased platelet destruction or consumption Splenic sequestration When should I seek medical care for thrombocytopenia? Many hospitals help you to give your own blood, to be stored in case you need it to prevent low platelets in the future. Abnormal hemoglobin structure can, therefore, disrupt the shape of red blood cells and impede their function and flow through blood vessels. What is thrombocytopenia low platelet count? MacNee W, Rahman I. Resources in your library Resources in other libraries.
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COPD is a progressive lung disease that makes breathing difficult due to partially obstructed airflow into and out of the lungs. It results from an inflammatory and destructive process in the lungs stimulated by exposure to toxins, primarily due to a history of smoking cigarettes.
Because the airways are partially blocked or damaged, breathing becomes difficult, and the lungs begin to lose their ability to effectively take up oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. Other causes include long-term exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants, occupational chemicals, fumes, dusts, and second-hand smoking.
In rare cases, a genetic component may increase susceptibility. COPD is an umbrella term that includes both emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
These patients are typically thin, often exhibiting significant weight loss due to the increased energy requirements associated with labored breathing. The term COPD is used to refer to these two conditions because patients often exhibit features of both. Although COPD is largely preventable, it is not curable, and lung damage is irreversible.
Maintaining a Healthy Weight Is Vital For most people, breathing is unconscious and perceived as effortless. Yet, for many patients with COPD, breathing requires a conscious effort. Energy needs can be calculated using indirect calorimetry or the Harris-Benedict equation. The general recommendation is 1. In addition to increased REE, patients lose weight due to decreased dietary intake as a result of an inherent inability to eat rather than a lack of appetite.
Reasons for poor nutritional intake include the following:. The purpose of nutrition care for this population is to provide adequate energy to minimize the risk of unwanted weight loss, avoid loss of fat-free mass FFM , prevent malnutrition, and improve pulmonary status. Research shows that COPD is a disease that not only affects the lungs but can also have systemic consequences, as well as result in severe weight loss and FFM depletion.
In addition, a low body mass index BMI is associated with a poor prognosis; therefore, patients must maintain energy balance in light of their increased caloric needs.
Malnutrition can impair pulmonary function, increase susceptibility to infection, lower exercise capacity, and increase the risk for mortality and morbidity.
FFM depletion is defined as below 16 kilograms per meter squared for men and 15 kilograms per meter squared for women based on the FFM index FFM divided by height squared.
For those patients who are overweight, added pressure on the lungs can increase the effort required to breathe, so encouraging patients to safely lose excess weight is important. Antioxidant, Vitamin, and Mineral Considerations Research indicates that cigarette smoke contains free radicals and other oxidants that can lead to oxidative stress, subsequent inflammation, and reduced airflow to the lungs.
For this reason, antioxidant therapy has been proposed for its ability to minimize free radical damage and reduce inflammation. Researchers have found that smokers, as well as patients experiencing acute exacerbations, had lower plasma levels of certain antioxidants eg, ascorbic acid, vitamin E, beta-carotene, selenium and that this imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants leads to oxidative stress and inflammation and could be a significant contributing factor to the systemic effects characterized by the disease.
Many patients with COPD are prescribed glucocorticoids to help reduce airway inflammation and improve breathing. However, one of the side effects of glucocorticoid use is bone mass loss and eventual osteoporosis, leading to an increased risk of fractures. There are several risk factors that can cause osteoporosis, and patients with COPD typically have many of them, such as the use of glucocorticoids, smoking, vitamin D deficiency, low BMI, malnutrition, and decreased mobility.
For this reason, patients who are starting a long-term inhaled or oral glucocorticoid therapy are encouraged to supplement it with calcium and vitamin D, since bone loss occurs rapidly upon initiating treatment.
A healthy diet for patients with COPD can lead to better breathing and possibly facilitate weaning from mechanical ventilation by providing the calories necessary to meet metabolic needs, restore FFM, and reduce hypercapnia. Carbon dioxide is a waste product of metabolism and is normally expelled via the lungs. However, patients with COPD who have limited and obstructed airflow have a compromised ability to take in oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide.
In healthy individuals, increased carbon dioxide levels are easily eliminated. The Importance of Proper Nutrition Proper nutrition can help reduce carbon dioxide levels and improve breathing. Specifically, it is important to focus on the percentages of total carbohydrate, fat, and protein that patients consume to see how their diet composition impacts their respiratory quotient RQ , which is defined as the ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed. To put it simply, following metabolism, carbohydrate, fat, and protein are all converted to carbon dioxide and water in the presence of oxygen.
However, the ratio of carbon dioxide produced to oxygen consumed differs per macronutrient; the RQ for carbohydrate is 1, fat is 0. From a nutritional standpoint, this means that eating carbohydrates will yield the most carbon dioxide, while eating fats will yield the least carbon dioxide. That said, prescribing a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet would reduce patient RQ levels and carbon dioxide production. In fact, patients who have difficulty increasing ventilation following a carbohydrate load or patients with severe dyspnea or hypercapnia may benefit from a high-fat diet.
However, there is not a general consensus in the literature to universally recommend a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet, as it may not be necessary for stable patients and not all patients may be able to tolerate the potential side effects eg, gastrointestinal and abdominal discomfort, belching, diarrhea. In addition, some patients may have a coexisting heart condition, which could make a high-fat diet contraindicated. Protein needs should be assessed on an individual basis.
Intake should be high enough to stimulate protein synthesis, prevent muscle atrophy, and maintain lung strength but should not contribute excess calories to the diet. The general rule of thumb is about 1. As for fluids, patients who are not on a fluid-restricted diet should be encouraged to drink liquids 2 to 3 liters per day to keep mucous thin and help clear the airways. There is still debate as to the effectiveness of nutrition therapy in improving anthropometric measurements, lung function, and exercise capacity in patients with COPD.
Although exercise is probably the last thing most patients with breathing problems want to think about, engaging in regular exercise has been shown to improve overall strength and endurance, reduce symptoms of dyspnea and fatigue, improve cardiovascular function, and contribute to stronger respiratory muscles and improved breathing.
Modify food consistency if mastication seems to increase fatigue while eating. Consuming too much can cause the body to retain water and can make breathing more difficult. Eating and digestion require oxygen, so the body will need the extra oxygen.
Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nutrition and metabolism in COPD. American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada. Manual of Clinical Dietetics, 6th Edition. American Dietetic Association; Nutritional intervention in COPD: Treatment of stable COPD: Nutritional support for individuals with COPD: MacNee W, Rahman I.
Oxidants and antioxidants as therapeutic targets in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Reasons for poor nutritional intake include the following: A full abdomen can make breathing uncomfortable. Great Valley Publishing Company, Inc. Advertise Media Kit Gift Shop.